Richard Malter, Ph.D.
Licensed Nutrition Counselor (Illinois)
Specializing in Hair Tissue Mineral Analysis (TMA)
2295 W. Trail Blazer Drive
Cottonwood, Arizona 86326
(928) 649-9343 Fax: (928) 649-1971


March 19, 2004

Dear John:

I am pleased to have the opportunity to review your hair tissue mineral analysis (TMA).

General Comments about Hair Tissue Mineral Analysis (TMA)

The hair TMA reflects a major paradigm shift from the medical/disease model that is most commonly applied in health care today. The medical/disease model is primarily concerned with giving a diagnosis of a particular health problem. The paradigm shift involves looking at the essential TMA nutrient minerals and how they relate to the intensity of our stress reactions and cellular energy production rather than diagnosing a disease.

These TMA patterns are primarily influenced by our diet and nutritional supplements, exposure to toxic metals such as mercury, lead or aluminum, drugs and medications, and by the manner in which stress affects us. Stress can be strictly psychological and emotional or it can be physical, including such things as infections. These different factors come together to determine our nutrient mineral patterns that can be viewed in a hair TMA. Therefore, I refer to a hair tissue mineral analysis as a stress and an energy profile. It is a very comprehensive form of mineral feedback that reveals to us how we have been affected by various stressors in our life. What we observe in the TMA is a summation of the effects of all of these life style factors on our mineral patterns.

Your TMA Results

Attached below is a copy of your TMA profile. This report will highlight the most important information for helping you with stress and energy problems, mainly through the ingestion of vitamin and mineral supplements.

The numbers reported below the name of each mineral indicate the quantity of that mineral measured by processing your hair sample. For example, your calcium is 47, magnesium is 1.8, sodium is 12, potassium is 9 and phosphorus is 13.

I generate the graph at the end of this report by comparing your TMA numbers with the corresponding ideal mineral levels. Your TMA numbers from the lab are also provided at the end of this report. The ideal mineral levels are calcium (Ca) = 42, magnesium (Mg) = 6, sodium (Na) = 24, potassium (K) = 10, and phosphorus (P) = 16. As you can see, the ideal numbers for each nutrient mineral are quite different from each other. Since the ideal levels for each nutrient mineral are different from each other, I then convert your test result numbers to a numerical scale on which the number "1" represents the ideal level for each nutrient mineral. This allows us to see how close to the ideal level each of your TMA mineral numbers is. For example, your calcium of 47 is slightly above the ideal calcium of 42. This is clearly seen in the graph at the end of this report by noting that the calcium is just above the number "1" level. Your magnesium level of 1.8 is well below the ideal magnesium level of 6. These numbers result in a Ca/Mg ratio of 26.11/1 (ideal Ca/Mg = 7/1). This ratio will be discussed in more detail below.

Your TMA sodium (Na) level is low. This is also what we usually see in a slow metabolic pattern because sodium is regulated by activity of the adrenal glands. The sodium level of 12 is ½ the ideal TMA sodium level of 24. Your potassium level of 9 is very close to the ideal potassium level of 10. These numbers for sodium and potassium result in a Na/K ratio of 1.33/1. This is an "inversion" of the ideal Na/K ratio of 2.4/1. According to Dr. David Watts, there are two kinds of Na/K inversions found in a hair analysis. One is a "true" inversion of the Na/K ratio that reflects a significant depletion of the adrenal glands. A true inversion of the Na/k ratio is associated with adrenal exhaustion. The true inversion of Na/K is usually found in a TMA pattern in which the zinc/copper ratio is high. This may be explained by the fact that zinc helps to retain potassium in the cells and tissues. On the other hand, a "pseudo" Na/K inversion is usually found in a TMA pattern in which there is a low ratio of zinc/copper and a high ratio of calcium/magnesium. Since potassium tends to be concentrated inside of cells and tissues, with a low zinc/copper ratio and a high calcium/magnesium ratio, large quantities of potassium are excreted from inside of cells and tissues so that the hair has picked up the cellular loss of potassium. Therefore, in this particular TMA pattern, the elevated level of potassium reflects the excretion of a large quantity of potassium. The excretion of a large quantity of potassium results in a high sodium/potassium ratio rather than an "inversion" of the sodium/potassium ratio. A high Na/K ratio reflects a chronic high state of stress or the alarm stage of stress – the fight or flight response. A person with a high Na/K ratio, especially in the presence of a very high Ca/Mg ratio and a very low level of magnesium will tend to have a "short fuse" and a low frustration tolerance. Very intense emotional reactions are associated with this TMA mineral dynamic. Also, a high Na/K ratio and the intense stress associated with it will tend to keep the Judge inflated so that Judge issues are constantly activated.

The TMA mineral graph also allows us to see the relationships between the nutrient minerals. The ratios or relationships between the different nutrient minerals are important for deriving the most useful information from a hair TMA. The minerals regulate different psychological and physiological functions depending on the ratios between pairs of minerals. For example, the ideal Ca/Mg ratio = 42/6 or 7/1. Your ratio of Ca/Mg is 26.11/1. This ratio is very high compared to the ideal ratio of 7/1. This relationship is clearly seen in the graph. The Ca/Mg ratio is the blood sugar ratio because calcium and magnesium help to regulate the secretion of insulin. This ratio is often highly elevated in individuals with a family history of alcoholism. Therefore, I also refer to this ratio as the addiction ratio. Calcium and magnesium also are associated with muscle tone. The higher the Ca/Mg, the tighter a person’s muscles tend to be. Muscle twitches and spasms or cramping are more likely to occur with an elevated Ca/Mg ratio.

The lab’s report indicates that your mineral pattern is a slow metabolic pattern. This is determined by your ratio of calcium to phosphorus (Ca/P) =3.62/1 (ideal ratio = 2.6/1). When the Ca/P ratio is above 2.6/1, a slow metabolic pattern is indicated. Conversely, when Ca/P is below 2.6/1, a fast metabolic pattern is indicated. A Ca/P ratio of 3.62/1 indicates a slow metabolic pattern because this ratio is just above the ideal ratio of 2.6/1. Calcium and magnesium are usually both high in the slow metabolic pattern. Sodium and potassium are both low in this slow metabolic pattern. When a fast metabolizer becomes depleted from chronic stress, there is a mineral shift that moves the person from fast to slow metabolism. This is what appears to be shown in your present TMA pattern.

As noted above, your zinc/copper (Zn/Cu) ratio is low 5.15/1 (ideal Zn/Cu ratio = 8/1). Your hair TMA copper level is low at 3.3 (the ideal level = 2.5). Zinc (17) is slightly low compared to the ideal zinc level of 20. An elevated copper level and a low zinc/copper ratio are often associated with excess mental activity with thoughts and ideas racing. Sometimes this will affect concentration and attention span. Sleep disturbances may also occur.

The phosphorus, chromium, and selenium levels are close to the ideal levels for each. Manganese and iron levels are low.

None of the toxic metals are significantly elevated at the present time.

Overall, this is a hair TMA profile that shows some important mineral imbalances. It can be used as an effective guide to selecting those vitamins and minerals that are most likely to provide good nutritional support for better energy levels and more resilience in coping with stress.

Optimum Supplement Recommendations: AM PM
Multi-vitamin/mineral: Para-Pack* 1 1
Magnesium (100 mg) 1 1
Min Plex B (magnesium, B6 & chromium) 1 1
ZMC (zinc, manganese, C) 1 1
Spartan MK (magnesium & potassium in aspartate formula) 2 2

Always take supplements with or immediately after meals for better absorption. High protein and low carbohydrates, especially refined sugars, are the recommended diet for this TMA pattern. Dark green leafy vegetables are also recommended.

If you have any questions, please feel free to contact me.

Rick Malter, Ph.D.
Nutrition Counselor
(928) 649-9343   e-mail:

*Para-Pack is the multi-vitamin/mineral formulated for the slow metabolic mineral pattern.

(numbers are reported in milligrams per cent)

Nutrient Minerals

Ca = 47 (42)
Mg = 1.8 (6)
Na = 12 (24)
K = 9 (10)
Cu = 3.3 (2.5)
Zn = 17 (20)
P = 13 (16)
Mn = .01 (.08)
Fe = .8 (2.2)
Cr = .06 (.08)
Se = .10 (.08)

Toxic Metals:

Pb = .10
Hg = .06
Cd = .008
Al = .6